Welcome to this the first edition of
PANeL News from the UK. I hope the content is interesting and I look
forward to your responses. To launch our deliberations I have deliberately
chosen a controversial topic.
(Pan African Network of Emerging
Leaders) is an international group of young African leaders who have
participated in and been inspired by the British Council's Inter Action
programme. A PANeL representative from each of the 19 participating
countries has been elected and will inform Inter Action participants of
events and meetings taking place in their particular country. If you are
not sure who your PANEL representative is, please contact your British
- an overview
PANeL is an international action orientated organisation originated
from a powerful interaction conversation journey during the Pan African
Event in Nairobi, Kenya on the 5th April 2005 and built during
the Dakar meeting in Sénégal from the 22nd - 25th
The aim of PANeL is to celebrate and honour the
whole Inter Action Leadership Programme successful process in order to
contribute significantly to Africa's Development through personal
transformation and impacts on communities and organisations.
PANeL is established within 19 countries of Africa in the Sub Saharian.
PANeL's members come from different social, economics and cultural
backgrounds. They promote, value and respect diversity and differences
within individuals, communities and organisations; building on what is
working and living in a daily base their guiding 6, 7, 8 philosophy
expressed in our 6 Passions, 7 Principles and 8 Assumptions of
Members of PANeL are open to learning and open-minded,
curious and willing to share their own experiences, skills and knowledge
and have a strong desire to make significant contributions to society and
are actively seeking for new perspectives.
An Africa with responsible, committed and accountable
people who are collaborating to promote unity, peace, social justice,
sustainable development and a better life for all
To engender leadership in Africa that thinks and acts
differently about gender, age and community through self-transformation,
appreciating and working with differences as well as building on and
honouring our successes
To strengthen and expand the network of leaders at
national and Pan African level so as to encourage ownership and
sustainability of our principles, passions and assumptions of
To reinforce leadership through training and
empowerment of our communities.
To contribute to building a culture of good governance
and social justice through powerful conversations.
To partner with other national, Pan African &
international initiatives that are committed to the advancement of
not test your knowledge of Africa?
and see how many questions you get
we entering a new nuclear age?
For most of the years since the Second
World War ended in Europe in 1945 and elsewhere in 1946 the worries
surrounding the nuclear capability of certain nations leading to war were
firmly based on the behaviour of the USA and the former Soviet Union.
Israel probably has possessed a nuclear deterrent since the 1960’s but
it has always been reluctant to admit to this and its near neighbours
invaded in both 1967 and 1973 confident that Tel Aviv would not order the
use of atomic weapons.
As the last century closed we watched as
both India and Pakistan entered the nuclear league. More recently the
Korean peninsular has witnessed nuclear tests by North Korea and now this
part of the globe has to examine how its lives with an unstable neighbour
capable of atomic reactions.
However, it is perhaps another region
that should concern us more – for the Middle East now has more than one
nuclear power. Iran has been moving towards being able to construct and
eventually test an atomic device.
The fear that Israel may be attacked by
an Arab nation that has a nuclear capability is not the only fear now
being assessed in the region: those who monitor the Middle East are
concerned that Shiite Iran may just decide to put pressure on Sunni Saudi
Arabia and so there exists the possibility that a nuclear race will begin
within the Arab world. This may not be as remote as some observers think
for in Iraq the Sunnis extremists have labelled the Shiite groups as
infidels and are now killing innocent civilians just because they are
Shiites. In turn Shiites are seeking revenge against Sunnis and a vicious
cycle of retribution has begun. If Iran does get a bomb then its
neighbours will probably want one for themselves. Saudi Arabia will not
want to trust its defence to the US nuclear shield and will want to arm
itself against any possible threat of atomic attack. Once Riyadh
commissions the work needed to produce a nuclear device the Egyptians will
also want to enhance their defence capabilities. Indeed, Gamal Mubarak,
the son of the President has already called for his country to have such a
capability. With legitimate states considering a move to nuclear
capability the risk of extremists acquiring such technical know how
increases and the region would become even more unstable. Some of the new
nuclear powers might sell the necessary technology to other countries and
so gain proxy allies. Hezbollah received medium-range rockets from Iran
during the recent Lebanese crisis and by using an intermediary you reduce
the risk of retaliation.
Another scenario that is being discussed
is what happens if Saudi Arabia fragments and its nuclear capacity falls
into the hands of those with sympathy for Osama bin Laden? Such
proliferation may also arise if Al Qaeda bought such technology from a new
member of the nuclear club? There are now nine members of this elite group
and others have intensions to join.
When Pakistan first started its move to
being a nuclear power few thought that such weapons would be used by one
Islamic nation against another. But that was before Muslim killed Muslim
in road-side and suicide bomb attacks. The latter has no tradition in
Islam but its growing popularity removes some of the threat of deterrence
as the bomber dies as part of the attack. The result of such attacks is
death to innocent Muslims, who according to the logic of those carrying
out such acts are involuntary martyrs. It is not a great stretch on the
imagination to perceive of an Islamic organisation using a nuclear device
against the Israelis and accepting massive retaliation by US and others as
an example of fellow Muslims dying with God’s grace whilst others live
on to fight to Holy War. Amongst some Islamic scholars there is now a
growing debate as to whether nuclear weapons are permissible under the
laws of the Koran. Their findings are published on the Internet and anyone
can read them. The central thesis of such reports is that Islam is under
attack and how are Muslim’s supposed to defend themselves against powers
who have access to enormous arsenals of weapons. Many Muslims see
themselves as suffering from military inferiority and some may decide that
they too need arms that might go against the current interpretations of
the Koran but will purchase the weapons in order to protect their faith.
The jihadis now fighting in Iraq see the US as the murderer of hundreds of
thousands of innocent Muslims and Bin Laden never talks of the ‘end’
as he sees the fight against the infidels as part of human earthly life.
One other factor needs to be analysed
and that is a central feature of the Iranian Shiite interpretation of
Islam. It is that they believe that a 12th Imam is hidden
awaiting the opportunity to return and his re-appearance will usher in a
golden age followed by a Day of Judgement. It is worth noting that Mokata
al-Sadr’s militia in Iraq is called Mahdi Army – the name Shiite’s
give to the 12th one.
We have to hope that Ahmadinejad
understands the consequences of any use of nuclear weaponry in the region
and that even the most extreme leaders of militia appreciate that any
action suggesting a potential use of nuclear weapons will lead to an
escalation of violence that will kill millions of their fellow believers.
non-nuclear proliferation treaty
is worth noting that India, Pakistan and Israel have NOT signed this
treaty and North Korea withdrew from it.
A total of 188 nations have signed the treaty.
countries have the legal authority to keep an arsenal of nuclear weapons
– USA, Russia, France, United Kingdom and China. India and Pakistan have
moved into the ‘nuclear age’ and it is widely accepted that Israel has
a nuclear capacity.
TREATY ON THE NON-PROLIFERATION
OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS
concluding this Treaty, hereinafter referred to as the Parties to the
devastation that would be visited upon all mankind by a nuclear war and
the consequent need to make every effort to avert the danger of such a war
and to take measures to safeguard the security of peoples,
Believing that the
proliferation of nuclear weapons would seriously enhance the danger of
In conformity with
resolutions of the United Nations General Assembly calling for the
conclusion of an agreement on the prevention of wider dissemination of
co-operate in facilitating the application of International Atomic Energy
Agency safeguards on peaceful nuclear activities,
support for research, development and other efforts to further the
application, within the framework of the International Atomic Energy
Agency safeguards system, of the principle of safeguarding effectively the
flow of source and special fissionable materials by use of instruments and
other techniques at certain strategic points,
principle that the benefits of peaceful applications of nuclear
technology, including any technological by-products which may be derived
by nuclear-weapon States from the development of nuclear explosive
devices, should be available for peaceful purposes to all Parties to the
Treaty, whether nuclear-weapon or non-nuclear-weapon States,
Convinced that, in
furtherance of this principle, all Parties to the Treaty are entitled to
participate in the fullest possible exchange of scientific information
for, and to contribute alone or in co-operation with other States to, the
further development of the applications of atomic energy for peaceful
intention to achieve at the earliest possible date the cessation of the
nuclear arms race and to undertake effective measures in the direction of
co-operation of all States in the attainment of this objective,
determination expressed by the Parties to the 1963 Treaty banning nuclear
weapons tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water in its
Preamble to seek to achieve the discontinuance of all test explosions of
nuclear weapons for all time and to continue negotiations to this end,
Desiring to further
the easing of international tension and the strengthening of trust between
States in order to facilitate the cessation of the manufacture of nuclear
weapons, the liquidation of all their existing stockpiles, and the
elimination from national arsenals of nuclear weapons and the means of
their delivery pursuant to a Treaty on general and complete disarmament
under strict and effective international control,
Recalling that, in
accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, States must refrain in
their international relations from the threat or use of force against the
territorial integrity or political independence of any State, or in any
other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations, and
that the establishment and maintenance of international peace and security
are to be promoted with the least diversion for armaments of the world’s
human and economic resources,
Have agreed as
State Party to the Treaty undertakes not to transfer to any recipient
whatsoever nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices or control
over such weapons or explosive devices directly, or indirectly; and not in
any way to assist, encourage, or induce any non-nuclear-weapon State to
manufacture or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons or other nuclear
explosive devices, or control over such weapons or explosive devices.
non-nuclear-weapon State Party to the Treaty undertakes not to receive the
transfer from any transferor whatsoever of nuclear weapons or other
nuclear explosive devices or of control over such weapons or explosive
devices directly, or indirectly; not to manufacture or otherwise acquire
nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices; and not to seek or
receive any assistance in the manufacture of nuclear weapons or other
nuclear explosive devices.
non-nuclear-weapon State Party to the Treaty undertakes to accept
safeguards, as set forth in an agreement to be negotiated and concluded
with the International Atomic Energy Agency in accordance with the Statute
of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Agency’s safeguards
system, for the exclusive purpose of verification of the fulfilment of its
obligations assumed under this Treaty with a view to preventing diversion
of nuclear energy from peaceful uses to nuclear weapons or other nuclear
explosive devices. Procedures for the safeguards required by this Article
shall be followed with respect to source or special fissionable material
whether it is being produced, processed or used in any principal nuclear
facility or is outside any such facility. The safeguards required by this
Article shall be applied on all source or special fissionable material in
all peaceful nuclear activities within the territory of such State, under
its jurisdiction, or carried out under its control anywhere.
2. Each State Party
to the Treaty undertakes not to provide: (a) source or special fissionable
material, or (b) equipment or material especially designed or prepared for
the processing, use or production of special fissionable material, to any
non-nuclear-weapon State for peaceful purposes, unless the source or
special fissionable material shall be subject to the safeguards required
by this Article.
3. The safeguards
required by this Article shall be implemented in a manner designed to
comply with Article IV of this Treaty, and to avoid hampering the economic
or technological development of the Parties or international co-operation
in the field of peaceful nuclear activities, including the international
exchange of nuclear material and equipment for the processing, use or
production of nuclear material for peaceful purposes in accordance with
the provisions of this Article and the principle of safeguarding set forth
in the Preamble of the Treaty.
Non-nuclear-weapon States Party to the Treaty shall conclude agreements
with the International Atomic Energy Agency to meet the requirements of
this Article either individually or together with other States in
accordance with the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency.
Negotiation of such agreements shall commence within 180 days from the
original entry into force of this Treaty. For States depositing their
instruments of ratification or accession after the 180-day period,
negotiation of such agreements shall commence not later than the date of
such deposit. Such agreements shall enter into force not later than
eighteen months after the date of initiation of negotiations.
1. Nothing in this
Treaty shall be interpreted as affecting the inalienable right of all the
Parties to the Treaty to develop research, production and use of nuclear
energy for peaceful purposes without discrimination and in conformity with
Articles I and II of this Treaty.
2. All the Parties
to the Treaty undertake to facilitate, and have the right to participate
in, the fullest possible exchange of equipment, materials and scientific
and technological information for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
Parties to the Treaty in a position to do so shall also co-operate in
contributing alone or together with other States or international
organizations to the further development of the applications of nuclear
energy for peaceful purposes, especially in the territories of
non-nuclear-weapon States Party to the Treaty, with due consideration for
the needs of the developing areas of the world.
Each Party to the
Treaty undertakes to take appropriate measures to ensure that, in
accordance with this Treaty, under appropriate international observation
and through appropriate international procedures, potential benefits from
any peaceful applications of nuclear explosions will be made available to
non-nuclear-weapon States Party to the Treaty on a non-discriminatory
basis and that the charge to such Parties for the explosive devices used
will be as low as possible and exclude any charge for research and
development. Non-nuclear-weapon States Party to the Treaty shall be able
to obtain such benefits, pursuant to a special international agreement or
agreements, through an appropriate international body with adequate
representation of non-nuclear-weapon States. Negotiations on this subject
shall commence as soon as possible after the Treaty enters into force.
Non-nuclear-weapon States Party to the Treaty so desiring may also obtain
such benefits pursuant to bilateral agreements.
Each of the Parties
to the Treaty undertakes to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective
measures relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race at an early date
and to nuclear disarmament, and on a treaty on general and complete
disarmament under strict and effective international control.
Nothing in this
Treaty affects the right of any group of States to conclude regional
treaties in order to assure the total absence of nuclear weapons in their
1. Any Party to the
Treaty may propose amendments to this Treaty. The text of any proposed
amendment shall be submitted to the Depositary Governments which shall
circulate it to all Parties to the Treaty. Thereupon, if requested to do
so by one-third or more of the Parties to the Treaty, the Depositary
Governments shall convene a conference, to which they shall invite all the
Parties to the Treaty, to consider such an amendment.
2. Any amendment to
this Treaty must be approved by a majority of the votes of all the Parties
to the Treaty, including the votes of all nuclear-weapon States Party to
the Treaty and all other Parties which, on the date the amendment is
circulated, are members of the Board of Governors of the International
Atomic Energy Agency. The amendment shall enter into force for each Party
that deposits its instrument of ratification of the amendment upon the
deposit of such instruments of ratification by a majority of all the
Parties, including the instruments of ratification of all nuclear-weapon
States Party to the Treaty and all other Parties which, on the date the
amendment is circulated, are members of the Board of Governors of the
International Atomic Energy Agency. Thereafter, it shall enter into force
for any other Party upon the deposit of its instrument of ratification of
3. Five years after
the entry into force of this Treaty, a conference of Parties to the Treaty
shall be held in Geneva, Switzerland, in order to review the operation of
this Treaty with a view to assuring that the purposes of the Preamble and
the provisions of the Treaty are being realised. At intervals of five
years thereafter, a majority of the Parties to the Treaty may obtain, by
submitting a proposal to this effect to the Depositary Governments, the
convening of further conferences with the same objective of reviewing the
operation of the Treaty.
1. This Treaty
shall be open to all States for signature. Any State which does not sign
the Treaty before its entry into force in accordance with paragraph 3 of
this Article may accede to it at any time.
2. This Treaty
shall be subject to ratification by signatory States. Instruments of
ratification and instruments of accession shall be deposited with the
Governments of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland,
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States of America,
which are hereby designated the Depositary Governments.
3. This Treaty
shall enter into force after its ratification by the States, the
Governments of which are designated Depositaries of the Treaty, and forty
other States signatory to this Treaty and the deposit of their instruments
of ratification. For the purposes of this Treaty, a nuclear-weapon State
is one which has manufactured and exploded a nuclear weapon or other
nuclear explosive device prior to 1 January 1967.
4. For States whose
instruments of ratification or accession are deposited subsequent to the
entry into force of this Treaty, it shall enter into force on the date of
the deposit of their instruments of ratification or accession.
5. The Depositary
Governments shall promptly inform all signatory and acceding States of the
date of each signature, the date of deposit of each instrument of
ratification or of accession, the date of the entry into force of this
Treaty, and the date of receipt of any requests for convening a conference
or other notices.
6. This Treaty
shall be registered by the Depositary Governments pursuant to Article 102
of the Charter of the United Nations.
1. Each Party shall
in exercising its national sovereignty have the right to withdraw from the
Treaty if it decides that extraordinary events, related to the subject
matter of this Treaty, have jeopardized the supreme interests of its
country. It shall give notice of such withdrawal to all other Parties to
the Treaty and to the United Nations Security Council three months in
advance. Such notice shall include a statement of the extraordinary events
it regards as having jeopardized its supreme interests.
years after the entry into force of the Treaty, a conference shall be
convened to decide whether the Treaty shall continue in force
indefinitely, or shall be extended for an additional fixed period or
periods. This decision shall be taken by a majority of the Parties to the
This Treaty, the
English, Russian, French, Spanish and Chinese texts of which are equally
authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the Depositary
Governments. Duly certified copies of this Treaty shall be transmitted by
the Depositary Governments to the Governments of the signatory and
IN WITNESS WHEREOF
the undersigned, duly authorized, have signed this Treaty.
DONE in triplicate,
at the cities of London, Moscow and Washington, the first day of July, one
thousand nine hundred and sixty-eight.